In Which Covenant Are You?
By Jonathan Mitchell
There are various "covenants" found in the OT. The first one that we encounter is the one that God made to Noah (Gen. 6:18ff) in which He gave Noah a promise, followed by instructions, in which he, his immediate family, and a sample of the animals of that area would be kept safe during the period when God was about
"to suddenly reduce to complete ruin and decay all flesh within which is a spirit of life" (vs. 17, LXX).
Then in Gen. 9:9-17 He repeats His promise and extends it to Noah's descendants, after him, as well as to the living creatures upon the land (soil; earth) that are with him. These passages give us the original idea and concept of the term "covenant" (Heb. berith; Gr. diatheke) and we can observe that it was a decision made by God that was expressed by a promise and involved an arrangement between Him and His creation. We can also note that this arrangement involved a deliverance from a destruction (a causing to be ruined, to die and to decay) of the previous world with its particular arrangements. Noah's family became another point of "beginning," another origin story for the line that would lead to Israel and would end in Christ. God's plans always start and end in an arrangement that is based upon a promise.
The next occurrence of this term is found in Gen. 15:18,
"On that day Yahweh contracted a covenant with Abram, saying, 'To your seed I give this land...'" (CVOT).
This statement followed the killing and dividing of the animals and the night when
"a smoking stove and a fiery torch passed between the severed parts" (vs. 17).
We observe that Abram did not participate in passing through those parts (as was the custom, when making a covenant/arrangement in those times and cultures), for vs. 12 informs us that
"a stupor/trance/deep-sleep fell on Abram."
So, once again, God has made the arrangement, and also performed in the ceremony of what turned out to be a unilateral covenant, while Abram was asleep. This arrangement is again discussed in Gen. 17.
The next use of this term involved a bi-lateral covenant between Abraham and Abimelech, in Gen. 22:27, and in vs. 30 it explains that
"the two of them had sworn an oath."
We see a similar situation in Gen. 26:28, involving Isaac, and again later in 31:44, involving Jacob - both made between men in regard to specific situations. The idea is brought up again in Ex. 2:24, referring back to the promises made to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and this would now lead to God's eminent action that would deliver Israel from slavery in Egypt. In Ex. 19:4 Yahweh refers back to that deliverance
"when [He] bore [Israel] on vultures' wings and brought [them] to [Himself],"
and then places stipulations on the new arrangement in vs. 5:
"Now if you shall hearken, indeed hearken to My voice and observe My covenant, then you will become Mine..." (CVOT).
So, for the first time in Yahweh's dealings with humans, we have a bilateral arrangement where the second party, Israel, must comply with the Law which He set in place at Sinai,
"as far as to where (or: until which place or time) the Seed would (or: should) come, to Whom, for Whom, with respect to Whom and by Whom the promise had been made (or: in Whom He had been promised)," (Gal. 3:19b), but what would happen when the Seed arrived? Paul instructs us that this,
"Law and custom at one point entered in alongside (or: intruded into the situation by the side) to the end that the effect of the fall to the side (or: so that the result of the offense and the stumbling aside) would increase to be more than enough (should greatly abound and become more intense)" (Rom. 5:20a).
But because of the obedience of Christ (Rom. 5:19),
"where the Sin (the failure; the divergence and missing of the target) increases (or: abounded to be more than enough; becomes more intense) THE GRACE ("the act producing happiness, which is granted as a favor" - Jim Coram) at once super-exceeds (or: hyper-exceeded) over and above, surrounding to excessive abundance and overflow, to the end that JUST AS the Sin (the failure; the erroneous act; the deviation and digression which issued in missing the goal) at one point reigned (or: ruled as king; exercised sovereign sway) within, and in union with, the Death, THUS SO (or: in THIS way) also the Grace and joyous favor would reign (should rule as king; can exercise sovereign sway) through an eschatological deliverance that created rightwisedness (or: by means of being rightly-turned into an existence with equity in [covenantal] solidarity of right relationships which accord to the Way; through a liberating Justice-[expression]) [which leads] into Life which belongs to, pertains to and has the characteristics of the Age (or: eonian life; Life of the Age [of Messiah]; a life for the ages) - through Jesus Christ, our Owner (Lord; Master)" (Rom. 5:20b-21).
So it seems that we now have a new arrangement, because of the Christ Event. But before continuing in our study of what came with the new, let us briefly consider a few more OT passages where we encounter covenants, or, arrangements, or, agreements (between people):
Nu. 25:10-12, "Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying Phinehas, son of Eleazar, son of Aaron the priest reversed My fury from the sons of Israel in his zeal for My jealousy... Therefore say: Behold Me giving to him My covenant of peace; it will be his and his seed's after him, a covenant of an eonian priesthood..."
It would seem that it was this age-lasting priesthood which was the "arrangement" that He termed a "covenant of peace."
1 Sam. 18:3, "Jonathan contracted a covenant with David, since he loved him as his own soul."
In 2 Sam. 23:1 we are told,
"Now these are the last words of David."
In vs. 5, speaking concerning his house, he says that Yahweh
"has made an eonian covenant with me..."
In 2 Ki. 11:4,
"Jehoiada the priest... contracted a covenant with [the chief officers]" in order to save Joash from Athaliah. Then in vs. 17 we read, "Then Jehoiada contracted the covenant between Yahweh and the king and the people that they would be Yahweh's people; and also between the king and the people."
Isa. 28:18, speaking to, and about, Ephraim,
"Your covenant with death will be annulled, and your public treaty with the unseen (Sheol) shall not stand firm..."This referred to Israel's agreement with Egypt and Babylon to defend against Assyria so that "the overflowing scourge, when it passes, it shall not come on us..." (vs. 15).
"Thus says Yahweh: If you could annul My covenant with the day and My covenant with the night so that daytime and night fail to come about in their proper time..."
We would call this God's law of creation, or the arrangement that He put in the rotation of the earth.
"I will contract for them a covenant in that day with the animal of the field, and with the fowl of the heavens and the reptile of the ground."
Then in Hos. 12:1,
"Ephraim [is]... contracting a covenant with Assyria, and oil is being fetched to Egypt." (OT quotes from the Concordant Version)
These are some scattered examples of how this term was used during Israel's history, so we can get a general idea of is meaning. But the Law that was delivered from God for Israel, as Sinai, was the covenant and arrangement that created them as a nation and that applied to the entire people. It defined Israel's relationship with Yahweh, until the coming of the Messiah.
Having this history in mind, let us look at the meaning of the Greek word for "covenant," before considering its use in the NT. The noun is diatheke from the verb diatithemi. The verb, tithemi has the following semantic range: to set, place, lay, deposit, resolve, render, constitute or assign; to set in a certain arrangement or position; to design. The prefix dia- means: through, through the midst or throughout. It can also be interpreted as an intensifier as: thorough or complete. The lexicons give the following meanings for the noun diatheke: arrangement; settlement; covenant; contract; compact; agreement; disposition; treaty; will or testament; deed of gift. The verb diatithemi further includes the meanings: to settle terms; to decree assurances.
We find Jesus using the noun in Mat. 26:28, saying,
"you see, this is My blood (or: the blood which is Me), which pertains to the covenant [with other MSS: this is My blood - which is the new arrangement] - the [blood] around (or: encompassing and pertaining to) many [people; peoples], [the blood] continuously (or: presently) being poured out and progressively diffused into a divorce from failures, a forgiveness for mistakes, a dismissal of errors, a release from deviations, and a flowing away of sins!"
Mk. 14:24 records it this way:
"This is the blood - pertaining to My arrangement (My covenant; or: My will; [with other MSS: This is My blood which is the source of the New Covenant]) - the [blood] being now progressively poured, scattered and diffused out over many [folks; peoples]."
Lu. 22:20 offers this:
"This, the cup [of wine], [is; represents; seals] the new arrangement (or: the covenant which is new in character and quality) in union with, and within the midst of, My blood (or: the blood which is Me)."
These witnesses record Jesus indication that His death (His blood) initiates a new arrangement, pertains to HIS arrangement and pertains to the covenant which is encompassing and pertaining to many people, or peoples. Later in this same chapter, vss.29-30, Jesus told them,
"I, Myself, am now making an arrangement for you (or: am progressively making a covenant with, to and in you folks), just and correspondingly as My Father made the arrangement for a reign for Me (or: made the covenant of a kingdom with, and in, Me) - to the end that you folks can continuously eat and drink at My table, in union with My reign and in the midst of My kingdom and sovereign activities, and now you can habitually sit upon thrones, repeatedly making separations in, evaluations of and decisions for the twelve tribes (or: clans) of Israel."
From this statement, we can equate the covenant/arrangement with God's reign/kingdom.
As we move forward into the book of Acts, Stephen, in 7:8, references God's historic arrangement with Abraham,
"He also gave to him a full arrangement of circumcision (a covenant which is circumcision; or: a settlement that pertains to, has the characteristics of, is marked with, and is disposed by circumcision)..."
Then in Rom. 11:26-27, Paul calls to mind Isaiah's prophecy while stating,
"all Israel will progressively be delivered (rescued, saved, made whole and restored to their original position [in the olive tree]), according as it has been written, 'The One continuously dragging out of danger and drawing to Himself (The Rescuer; The Deliverer) will repeatedly arrive and be present from out of Zion; He will continue turning irreverence away from Jacob. 'And this [is] the arrangement for them from beside Me (or: And this [will be] My covenant in, to and for them) when I take away their failures (deviations; sins; mistakes; misses of the target; shooting amiss of the goal).'" [Isa. 59:20-21; 27:9]
These quotes found their fulfillment through the coming and work of Jesus the Messiah.
Paul expressed the present reality of this arrangement in 2 Cor. 3:6,
"Who also adequately qualifies us (or: made us fit, competent and sufficient) [to be] attending servants and dispensers of an arrangement that is new in quality (or: pertaining to a new kind of covenant that has a different character and is fresh and effective) - not of [the] letter (or: not pertaining to the result of that which is written down; not having its source in the effect of a written text), but in contrast, of a Breath-effect (or: pertaining to the result of [the] Spirit; having its source in and being the effect of spirit and attitude), for the effect of letter habitually kills (or: the result of writing something into a text repeatedly puts away in death), yet the Spirit (or: the spirit; the breath-effect; the Attitude) continuously gives life (or: repeatedly makes alive; progressively forms life; habitually creates life)!
Now in this same chapter, speaking of the arrangement given through Moses (in vs. 13-14) he goes on to describe that one as,
"that which was being progressively unemployed and brought down to doing no work and being made ineffective and nullified" in that during "the reading of the old covenant (arrangement; thorough placement) - it [i.e., the reading of the old, or the old covenant itself] continues not being uncovered or unveiled - because it [i.e., the old covenant and arrangement] continues being progressively and fully unemployed and brought down to doing no work and being made useless, ineffective and nullified within Christ (or: = the old arrangement and covenant is nullified in union with [the] Anointing, and in the midst of Christ)."
This is parallel to what Paul said in Rom. 10:4,
"for you see, Christ [is] an end of Law (or: for Christ [is] Law's goal and destiny; for [the] Anointing [is] termination from [the] Law; for Christ [was the] final act of [the] Law) [leading] into the Way pointed out in fair and equitable dealings, and rightwised [covenant] relationships of justice in eschatological liberation, to, for and in everyone habitually trusting and believing (or: because Christ [entering] into the pointed-out Way - in everyone normally exercising faith with conviction, and with each person remaining loyal - [is; brings] Law's climax)."
In the context of the marriage laws of the old covenant, in Rom. 7:2b Paul speaks metaphorically about the release from the Law (or, in 7:4, "dead to the Law") noting that,
"Yet if the husband may die, she has been released from employment and stands idle (or: has been brought down to living without labor and rendered inactive; she is discharged and brought down to unproductivity, being idled down) away from the husband's law (or: from pertaining to the law [= Torah] and custom of the adult man)."He is referring to the covenant between Yahweh and Israel that was established at Sinai, and referred to as a marriage in Ezk. 16:6-12. Cf Ex. 19:4, quoted above.
Turning to the new situation that has come with the new covenant, we read Paul speaking of the exclusion of the non-Israelites from that former arrangement, in Eph. 2:11-12,
"that once you, the nations (multitudes; ethnic groups; Gentiles; non-Israelites) in flesh (= in your physical beings and cultural heritages) - the ones habitually termed (spoken of as; called; said to be) 'uncircumcision' by the one (or: that) habitually being termed 'circumcision,' in flesh (= body, culture and religion), [i.e.], made by hand - that (or: because) you were, and continued on being for that season (or: in that appointed situation), apart from Christ ([the] Anointed One; = [the] Messiah): people having been alienated from the state of being a citizen (or: estranged from citizenship in the commonwealth and society) of, and which is, Israel and [being] strangers pertaining to the arrangements of (or: foreigners from covenants and testamentary dispositions whose origin is) The Promise and the assurance, continually having no expectation (or: hope), and [were] folks without God (or: godless; atheists) within the ordered System (world of culture, religion and governments; or: aggregate of humanity)."
But with the coming of the new arrangement, all that has changed - for in the following verse (Eph. 2:13) he happily reminds them that,
"But now, within, in union with and centered in Christ Jesus, you - the folks once being (continuously existing) far off (or: at a distance) - came to be (were birthed; are generated; are suddenly become) near, immersed within and in union with the blood of the Christ (the Anointed One; = the Messiah)."
The coming of the Messiah brought an end to the exclusive arrangement and inaugurated the new arrangement - which is inclusive of everyone.
In Gal. 3:15, Paul makes a human analogy,
"Like with the situation of a human settled arrangement (or: will; contract; covenant; or: will and testament deed of gift): [when] existing as having been validated (authoritatively confirmed; legally ratified; publicly affirmed), no one is proceeding to displace it (to annul it; to set it aside) or modify it or add stipulations (super-add an injunction; add a codicil; introduce additions or arrangements throughout it)."
Then in vs. 17-18 he goes on to explain,
"Further, I am now saying and meaning this: the Law [= Torah], being that having come into existence after four hundred and thirty years, is not invalidating (depriving of authority; annulling) into the situation to idle-down (render ineffective, useless, unproductive or inoperative) the Promise - a settled arrangement (contract; covenant; will and testament deed of gift) existing as having been previously validated (confirmed; legally ratified) by, and under [the authority of], God! For if the inheritance (the possession and enjoyment of the distributed allotment) [is] from out of Law [= Torah], [it is] no longer from out of Promise. Yet God has Himself graced [it] (has for Himself, in favor, freely granted [it]), so that it now stands as a favor of grace, to (or: for; in) Abraham through a Promise (or: because of a promise)."
Here he ties the new arrangement of grace to the inheritance that was given through a promise to Abraham, and sets this in full contrast with the Law. Later, in Gal. 4:24, amidst a contrast of Law with Promise, he uses Sarah and Hagar (the free woman contrasted to the slave girl) to make his point that he is speaking of the two arrangements, or covenants:
"which things are habitually being allegorized (or: are normally being expressed in an allegory; are commonly spoken of as something other [than what the language means]) - for these women are (= represent) two settled arrangements (covenants; contracts; wills)..."
Yet we learn the most about "covenants" in the book of Hebrews: In chapter 7 we find a change being spoken of:
11. If indeed, then, attainment of the goal (or: completion; perfection; maturity; the finished product and destiny) was, and continued being, through the Levitical priesthood - for based upon it the people have been placed under Law [= Torah] and set in a custom - what need [is there] still [for] a different [kind or line of] priest to be raising Himself up, down from (in accord with and in the line of succession of) the station (order; placement; appointment) of Melchizedek, and not normally said to be down from (in accord with and in the line of succession of) the station (order) of Aaron?
12. For it follows that with the priesthood being presently place-changed (or: progressively after-placed and transferred), out of necessity (or: compulsion) even a change of law [= Torah] is being born (or: also an after-placement transference of custom is coming into existence).
A change of law meant, by necessity, a change of arrangement (covenant). So then, in 7:22,
"Correspondingly, to that extent also, Jesus has become a guarantee (pledge; surety; sponsor) of a superior (stronger and better) arrangement (or: covenant; disposition)."
Then in chapter 8:
6. But now He has hit the mark of a thoroughly carried-through public service, even by as much as He continues being a Medium (an agency; an intervening substance; a middle state; one in a middle position; a go-between; an umpire; a Mediator) of a superior (stronger and better) arrangement (covenant; settlement; disposition) which has been instituted (set by custom; legally [= by/as Torah] established) upon superior (stronger and better) promises!
7. For if that first one was being unblamable (without ground for faultfinding; beyond criticism; satisfying), a place of a second one would not have continued to be sought (looked for).
8-10. 'Consider! Days are progressively coming,' says the Lord [=Yahweh], 'and I shall progressively bring an end together (a conclusion of its destiny; or: a joint-goal) upon the house of Israel and upon the house of Judah with a new arrangement (covenant; disposition), not down from nor in accord with the arrangement (covenant) which I made with their fathers, in a day of My taking hold upon their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, because they did not remain (abide; dwell) in My arrangement (covenant) and, for my part, I cared not for (was unconcerned about; neglected) them,' says the Lord [= Yahweh]. 'Because this is the arrangement (covenant; disposition) which I shall continue arranging for the house of Israel, after those days,' says the Lord: 'progressively giving My Laws into their thought (into that which goes through their mind; into their perception and comprehension), and I shall progressively imprint them (write or inscribe marks) upon their hearts, and I shall continue being in and among them ([in relation] to them; for them), into [the position of] a God, and they shall continue being (exist being) in Me ([in relation] to Me; for Me), into [the position of] a people.'
These promises are quotes of Jer. 30:31-33. They have all been realized in Jesus Christ. We read more in chapter 9:
15. And now because of this, He continues being a Medium (an Agency; an Intervening Substance; a middle state; One in a middle position; a go-between; an Umpire; a Mediator) of and from a New Arrangement (a disposition and covenant that is new in kind and quality) so that, pertaining to a death occurring (or: from a death having happened) [which leads] into an unbinding-away of, and a release from, the steppings-to-the-side [that were] based upon the first arrangement, (or: in order that by birthing Himself from death into the midst of a redeeming [of people], emancipating [them] from the deviations [that came] upon the first disposition; or: so that at one point coming into existence from death [and] on into the center of a liberation from transgressions [that were founded] upon the former covenant,) the people having been called and now remaining invited can at some point take hold of (or: may seize into possession; or: would suddenly receive) the Promise of the inheritance pertaining to and having the qualities of the Age [of Messiah] (or: the eonian possession and enjoyment of the allotment; or: the inheritance of, from and for the ages).
16. For you see, where [there is] an arrangement (or: covenant; also: a will; a settlement), a necessity to be brought [is] the death of the one arranging (or: making the will; covenanting),
17. for an arrangement (a will; a covenant) based upon dead folks [is] firm (fixed; guaranteed as valid), since it is never (not once) [other MSS: not then] strong (or: in force) at the time when the one making the arrangement (or: covenant; will) is alive (or: continues living).
And in chapter 12:
18. Now you see, you folks have not approached to (or: come toward so as to be now arrived at) something tangible (or: [D and later MSS read: a mountain] being habitually handled or normally touched), and something burning (or: having been burned by fire), and to a thick, dark storm-cloud, and to murky, gloomy darkness (or: the realm of nether gloom; the dark, shadowy quarter of dimness and obscurity), and to a whirlwind (tempest; hurricane),
19. and to a blare of a trumpet, and to a sound of gush-effects (or: a sound of the results of a flow; or: a voice of spoken words; a sound of declarations) - of which those hearing [it] asked to the side that there be no word added for them (or: of which, the folks listening refused and begged for release, to [the result that] no message be put toward them).
20. For they were not bearing (or: = carrying [through with]) that [which was] being presently distinguished (set and arranged throughout as strict orders): "And if a little animal may touch (come in contact with) the mountain it shall be repeatedly pelted with stones (or: stoned)." [Ex. 19:12-13]
21. And so fearful was the thing being seen, Moses said, "I am terrified (out of myself with fear) and trembling within." [Deut. 9:19]
These verses from (18-21) are a reference to, and a description of, the setting in place of old covenant (arrangement) at Mt. Sinai, but now, below, we have the contrast of the new, which is located (metaphorically) on a different mountain:
22. But to the contrary, you folks have approached so that you are now at Mount Zion - even in a city of a continuously living God; in "Jerusalem upon heaven" (or: in a Jerusalem pertaining to and having the character and qualities of a superior, or added, heaven and atmosphere; or: in Jerusalem [situated] upon, and comparable to, the atmosphere) - also among ten-thousands (or: myriads) of agents and messengers (people with a/the message):
23. [that is] in (or: to) an assembly of an entire people (or: an assembly of all; a universal convocation) and in (or: to) a summoning forth (or: a called-out and gathered community) of firstborn folks having been copied (from-written, as from a pattern; or: enrolled; registered) within [the; or: various] atmospheres (or: heavens), and in (or: to; with) God, a Judge (an Evaluator and Decider) of all mankind, even among (or: to; with) spirits of just folks (or: breath-effects from those who are fair and equitable and in right relationship within the Way pointed out) having been brought to the destined goal (perfected; finished; matured; made complete),
24. and in (or: to) Jesus, a Medium (or: an agency; an intervening substance; a middle state; one in a middle position; a go-between; an Umpire; a Mediator) of a new and fresh (young; recently-born) arrangement (covenant; settlement; a deposit which moves throughout in every direction; a placing through the midst; a will and testament), and to and in blood of sprinkling, and to One continuously speaking something superior to (or: stronger and better than) Abel.
And finally, in Heb. 13:
20. Now may the God who is Peace (or: who is the origin of and has the character and qualities of harmony [= shalom]), the One at one point leading our Lord (Master; Owner) - Jesus, the Shepherd of the sheep, the Great One - back up again out from the midst of dead folks,
21. at once render you folks thoroughly equipped (fitted; adapted) in the midst of all good and in every virtue, immersed in, and in union with, the blood of a thorough arrangement (or: a covenant; a deposit which moves throughout in every direction; a placing through the midst; or: a will and testament) pertaining to and having the qualities of the Age (or: an eonian - through the ages - settlement), in order to at once do (produce; perform) His will (the effect of His intent and purpose; the result of His design and pleasure) - progressively creating (doing; forming; producing) within you folks and in union with you people [other MSS: in us] the well-pleasing and satisfying [result] in His presence and sight, through Jesus Christ, in Whom (and: for Whom, by Whom, and to Whom) [is] the glory (the reputation and the manifestation which calls forth praise) on into the ages of the ages. It is so (Count on it; Amen)!
So, in which covenant do you now live? Are you trying to incorporate the old in with the new? Everything changed with the coming of the Messiah. Paul instructs us in 2 Cor. 5:17b,
"the original things (the beginning [situations]; the archaic and primitive [arrangements]) passed by (or: went to the side). Consider! New things have come into existence (have been birthed; or: It has become new things; or: He has been birthed and now exists BEING ONES of a different kind, character and quality)." [note: cf Rev. 21:5]
The idea of "arrangement," or "covenant," can be observed throughout all of creation and God's plan of the ages: the term applies to the "results" of what God plans to do. He made the arrangement regarding day and night; about how far the tides would come; about gravity; about the set-up in Eden; about death and humanity's situation post-Eden. He made the arrangement for the Lamb (slain from the foundation, or casting-down, of the earth) to bear away the sin of the world. This was the arrangement that comprised the Christ-Event. He made the arrangement of resurrection that would usher-in the new arrangement of existence and relationship between God and humanity - the new covenant of the new creation and the Second Humanity. The place to be living is within God's current and present arrangement for us. This place, this sphere of existence, this covenantal arrangement, is in Christ.
A final thought about our part in the making of this new arrangement. We read, above in Heb. 8, the quote of the promise that Yahweh made: "'progressively giving My laws into their thought (into that which goes through their mind; into their perception and comprehension), and I shall progressively imprint them (write or inscribe marks) upon their hearts..." This is a unilateral statement. It is the work of God within people and he creates (forms; constructs) the new inner being -- the new creation. It is a work of the Spirit of God, just as it was pictured on the Day of Pentecost: they did not reach up to God, take some of His Fire and place it "like tongues of fire" (Acts 2:3) upon their heads. Not that was a work of God, taking action upon people, making them burning lamp stands within the new, living temple (cf. Rev. 1:20b). And Acts 2:4 informs us,
"And then they all were filled with [the] Consecrated Breath-effect (or: [the] Holy Spirit; or: a set-apart attitude)..." Note the passive voice of the verb, "filled."
It was a unilateral work of God. This commenced a new arrangement. We find the God informing us about what He is doing (present tense of the verb) in Rev. 21:5,
"And then the One (or: He [who is]) continuously sitting upon the throne said, "Consider this! I am presently making all things new (or: habitually creating everything [to be] new and fresh; progressively forming [the] whole anew; or, reading "panta" as masculine: periodically making all humanity new; progressively creating every person anew; constantly constructing [as corporate being] all people fresh and new; continuously renewing everyone)!"
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